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This file: February 19, 2011
Updated with day 6388 image, June 1, 2011

EO001 (Quercus robur L, English oak,  001)

P93 (November 29)
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Seed, acorn details:

Provenance: Holland, Region 3.3.14-01
Provenance latitude: 52.25 degrees north 
Origin: Unknown
Altitude of seed trees in Holland: 0-100 metres
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Images:

Day 5918 - height from ground 1.5 m (~ 5 feet), selected details (note crustose lichens), 1.1 megabyte image 
Day 6388 - new shoots emerging, 2.6 megabyte image

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YouTube video of Quercus robur EO001, September 11, 2011




YouTube video of Quercus robur EO001, April 16, 2012



Local site details:

Composition: Glacial deposits derived from silicic/felsic rock, commonly tonalite. Soil typically reddish and clay rich, with magnetite (a few percent) common.

Soil: pH typically 5.0-5.5

Exposure: 3-10. The acorn was planted in a sheltered spot at a depth of 1-2 cm. The oak tree that grew from the acorn eventually became fully exposed to the elements as it grew above the shelter that had been afforded by the native trees.

Previous land use: none (planted in a cleared area of original forest).

Planting site preparation: none.

Site cultivation to date: occasional removal of competing vegetation such as young Betula papyrifera (White birch) and Prunus pennsylvanica (Pin cherry).

Planting site latitude: The local latitude is 47.50 degrees north. Hence the local site is 4.75 degrees south of the provenance latitude. Assuming 111.0 km per degree latitude, the local site is approximately 528 km or 321 miles south of the provenance latitude.

Altitude: 20 metres.

Aspect (slope): moderate, west.

Natural damage: no known moose (Alces alces americana Clinton 1822 [Peterson 1955]) or showshoe hare (Lepus americanus Erxleben 1777) damage noticed since planting.


Tree details:

Height: 7.47 m, 24' 6" (March 3, 2010) measured with measuring rod and assessed using photographs
Height: 7.47 m, 24' 6" (December 29, 2009)
Height: 6.80 m, 22' 4" (January 10, 2009) 



Bole circumference:
40.8 cm, September 7, 2011,
measured at fixed point marked on the bole ~30 cm from the ground
34.5 cm, March 3, 2010
33.5 cm, August 10, 2009

Bole circumference:

34.8 cm             September 7, 2011
122.0  cm (48 inches) above the ground
[29.2 cm,           March 3, 2010] ?
36.5 cm,          August 11, 2009
                        December 2009
35.5 cm,          July 23, 2009
34.0 cm           November 11, 2008



Time of the first seasonal shoot extension (bud break): early June 2009.

Shoot Extension (on a selected branch)

Two episodes of shoot extension were noticed:

A.  2009 first growth (shoot extension) data from a selected branch:

11.0 cm

B.  2009 second growth (shoot extension) data from the same selected branch as above (A):

10.0 cm total second growth to August 9 (when measurements were started)
11.5 cm to August 10
13.5 cm to August 11
14.2 cm to August 12
15.5 cm to August 13 
16.5 cm to August 14
18.0 cm to August 15
20.2 cm to August 16
20.2 cm to August 17
20.9 cm to August 18
21.3 cm to August 19 (end of second growth, and end of all growth for 2009, no third growth noticed)
21.3 cm to August 20
21.3 cm to August 21
21.3 cm to August 22 (32. 3 cm total of both seasonal growth extensions)

Growth rate:

From August 10 to August 19, the selected shoot above extended by 12.3 cm. Hence, 12.3 cm divided by 9 (days) gives a growth rate of approximately 1.37 cm per day.


Acorns:

The first acorns were noticed midway to the top of EO001 on August 10, 2007 (~5000 days, or 14 years after the acorn was planted).

August 13, 2007 - acorns dropping
August 18, 2008 - acorns dropping, August 21, all acorns dropped
August 20, 2009 - a few acorns turned dark brown over the previous 24 hours, none seen to have dropped yet
August 22, 2009 - first acorn seen to drop from tree (while handling a branch).
September, 2009 - 


It might seem odd to the reader that the drop dates of immature acorns are known to such an accurate time. But when a tree is visited every day, and sometimes more than once a day, the time of the dropping of acorns can be known to an accuracy of several hours.

Observations:

First hand field notes: on a few trees, leaves of the current year retain much green into mid-November (2009), otherwise, the majority of leaves are olive-green by mid-November, in November, the leaves are conspicuous and quite noticeable on the ground, sometimes at a great distance from the tree, as if they had escaped or been scattered there on purpose, when disturbed by the wind, late autumn leaves still attached to the tree sound like corn flakes flowing from a box, in late March, the same leaves now somewhat fewer in number on the same tree have a more ragged sound, other leaves will be found (blown in) on the floor of a shed, paper birch leaves are now black, wet, and folded into the mud, at approximately 15 years, when English Oak trees have become large enough, they will change the aesthetics of a garden or planted area by virtue of the mass effect of their unique (to Newfoundland) autumn leaf colour, at Candlemass, in mid-winter, when shovelling, oak leaves will be encountered on the surface or within snow, in springtime, when hacking, leaves will be found encased in tabular and conchoidal pieces of ice, trunks at the ground will withstand intense quack/couch grass fire, the lowest leaves heavy and afire white, gray, and charcoal will struggle into the air, in late April, last year's leaf when torn from its tree in a windstorm will make an audible 'tick' when striking the wooden side of a house, in late-April an occasional leaf will become lodged on edge upright in veranda decking and rest there for months (at least August 28 in 2009), first signs of bud break showing green occurs in late May (May 28, 2009) for provenances of Holland and southern England, stalks holding acorns are 4.0 to 5.5 cm long (July 24, 2009), acorns roughly 5-7 mm in diameter and 5 mm deep at July 26, 2009, second growth (flush) well underway in many oak toward the end of July (July 28, 2009), in late July leaves from 2008 will still be observed blowing around on the floor inside a shed on a windy day, second summer growth noticed in side branch of EO001 on August 9, 2009 at 10.0 cm (3.5 inches of rain the night/morning of August 7/8), second growth noticed at top of EO001 August 9, 2009 (see growth rate notes), immature 2008 acorns still attached to their stalks can be found in dead 2008 grass beneath oak as late as August 2009, the end of new growth can be identified by the 'stacking' effect as leaves are added but the stem does not extend, new second growth stems up to 30 cms long are able to withstand winds up to 80 km/hr without any damage (EO001, Hurricane Bill, August 23, 2009), leaves do not 'wick' oil and are strongly resistant to oil absorption, oil will pool on leaf surface,

Animals and insects: moose will eat branches down to at least a 5mm x 8mm ellipse (March 29, 2009), largely resistant to insects - caterpillars and spanworms consume leaves very slowly and appear to run out of time or search for new food during their attempt to damage leaves,

Storm damage: new growth leaders are able to withstand any known force winds, leaves will withstand gusts to 70 km/hr without any damage, leaves will become damaged (torn/shredded) when the wind gusts to 150 km/hr (remnants of tropical storm Danny, August 30, 2009)

Appendix
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Approximate density of Quercus robur - 720 kg/cubic metre (15% moisture)

Approximate density of Abies balsamea - 350 kg/cubic metre (15% moisture)
Approximate density of Picea mariana - 410 kg/cubic metre (15% moisture)
Approximate density of Betula alleghaniensis - 610 kg/cubic metre (15% moisture)
Approximate density of Buxus sempervirens - 910 kg/cubic metre (15% moisture)

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